Seattle Flora 1850

The Flora of Seattle in 1850

The Flora of Seattle in 1850: Major Species and Landscapes Prior to Urban Development – Raymond J. Larson, 2005
Upland Forest & Forest Edge
Vegetation Type Scientific Name Common Name Abundance
Coniferous trees Abies grandis Grand Fir Moderate
Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce Low
Pinus contorta Shore Pine Low
Pinus monticola Western White Pine Moderate
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir High
Taxus brevifolia Pacific Yew Moderate
Thuja plicata Western Red Cedar High
Tsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock High
Broadleaf trees Acer circinatum Vine Maple Low
Acer glabrum var. douglasii Douglas Maple Low
Acer Macrophyllum Bigleaf Maple Moderate
Alnus rubra Red Alder Moderate
Arbutus menziesii Pacific Madrone Moderate
Cornus nuttallii Pacific Dogwood Moderate
Prunus emarginata Bitter cherry Moderate
Quercus garryana Oregon oak Low
Rhamnus purshiana Cascara Moderate
Evergreen shrubs Gaultheria shallon Salal High
Mahonia (Berberis) nervosa Dull Oregon Grape High
Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape Low
Pachistima myrsinities Oregon Boxwood Low
Rhododendron macrophyllum Bigleaf Rhododendron Low
Vaccinium ovatum Evergreen Huckleberrry Moderate
Deciduous shrubs Amelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry Moderate-low
Corylus cornuta var. californica California Hazelnut High-moderate
Holodiscus discolor Oceanspray Moderate-low
Lonicera ciliosa Trumpet Honeysuckle Moderate
Lonicera hispidula Hairy Honeysuckle Moderate-low
Oemlaria cerasiformus Indian Plum Moderate
Philadelphus lewisii Wild Mock Orande Moderate-low
Physocarpus capitatus Pacific Nine Bark Low
Ribes sanguineum Red Flowering Current Moderate
Rosa gymnocarpa Baldhip Rose High-moderate
Rosa nutkana Nootka Rose High-moderate
Rosa pisocarpa Cluster Rose Low
Rubus leucodermis Black Raspberry Low
Rubus parvifolium Thimbleberry Moderate-low
Rubus spectabilis Salmonberry Low
Rubus ursinus Trailing Blackberry Moderate
Salix scouleriana Scouler Willow High-moderate
Sambucus cerulea Blue Elderberry Low
Sambucus racemosa Red Elderberry Moderate-low
Symphoricarpos albus var. laevigatus Snowberry Low
Vaccinium parvifolium Red Huckleberry High
Herbaceous Achlys triphylla Vanilla leaf High
Actaea rubra Red Baneberry Moderate
Adiantum aleuticum Maidenhiar Fern Low-moderate
Athyrium felix-femina Lady Fern Moderate
Blechnum spicant Deer Fern Moderate-low
Bromus pacifica Pacific Brome Low
Calypso bulbosa var. occidentalis Fariy Slipper Moderate-low
Carex deweyana subsp. leptopoda Dewey sedge Moderate
Carex hendersonii Henderson’s sedge Low
Carex obnupta Slough sedge Low
Corrallorhiza maculata Spotted coralroot Low
Disporum hookeri Fariybells Moderate
Dryopteris expansa Spreading wood fern Low
Epilobium angustifolium Fireweed Low
Erythronium oregonum White Fawn Lily Low
Fragaria viginiana var. platypetala Wild strawberry Low
Fritillaria affinis Chocolate Lily Low
Galium triflorum Fragrant Bedstraw Low
Goodyera oblongifolia Western Rattlesnake Plantain Moderate
Lathyrus polyphyllus Leafy Pea Low
Linnea borealis var. longiflora Twinflower Moderate
Linnium columbianum Columbian Lily Low
Luzula parviflora smallflowered woodrush Low-moderate
Maianthemum dilatatum False Lily of the Valley Moderate
Osmorhiza chilensis has Osmorhiza occidentalis– sweet anise Low-moderate
Petasites frigidus var. palmatus Arctic Sweet Clotsfoot Low
Piperia elegans Rein Orchid Low
Piperia unalascensis Slender-spire orchid Low
Polypodium glycyrrhiza Licorice fern High
Polystichum minutum Sword Fern High
Pteridium aquilinum Western brackenfern Moderate-high
Pyrola asarifolia Liverleaf wintergreen Low
Pyrola picta Whiteveined wintergreen Low
Smilacina (Maianthemum) racemosum False Solomon Seal Moderate
Smilacina (Maianthemum) stellatum Starry Solomon Seal Low
Solidago canadensis Canada Goldenrod Moderate
Streptopus amplexifolius Twisted Stalk Moderate
Tellima grandiflora Fringcup Moderate
Tiarella trifoliata var. trifoliata Foamflower Moderate
Tolmiea menziesii Youth-On-Age Moderate
Trientalis borealis subsp. borealis Star Flower Moderate
Trillium ovatum Western White Trillium Moderate-high
Vicia americana American vetch Low
Viola glabella Stream Violet Low
Viola sempervirens Evergreen violet Moderate
The Flora of Seattle in 1850: Major Species and Landscapes Prior to Urban Development – Raymond J. Larson, 2005
Species Growing Along Streams and in Moist Ravines (and other wet upland habitats besides bogs)
Vegetation Type Scientific Name Common Name Abundance
Coniferous trees Thuja plicata Western Red Cedar High
Tsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock Moderate
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Low
Broadleaf trees Acer circinatum Vine Maple High
Acer Macrophyllum Bigleaf Maple Moderate
Alnus rubra Red Alder High
Populus trichocarpa subsp. balsamifera Black Cottonwood Moderate
Rhamnus purshiana Cascara Moderate
Evergreen shrubs Gaultheria shallon Salal Low-moderate
Mahonia nervosa Dull Oregon Grape Low-moderate
Deciduous shrubs Cornus stolonifera var. occidentalis Western Dogwood Moderate
Linnea borealis var. longiflora Twinflower Low-moderate
Lonicera ciliosa Trumpet Honeysuckle Moderate
Lonicera hispidula Hairy Honeysuckle Low
Oemlaria cerasiformus Indian Plum Moderate
Oplopanax horridum Devil’s Club Moderate
Ribes bracteosum Stink Current Moderate
Ribes divaricatum Spreading Gooseberry Moderate
Ribes lacustre Black Gooseberry Low
Rubus parvifolium Thimbleberry Moderate
Rubus spectabilis Salmonberry High
Salix scouleriana Scouler Willow Moderate
Sambucus racemosa Red Elderberry Moderate
Vaccinium parvifolium Red Huckleberry Moderate
Herbaceous Actaea rubra Red Baneberry Low-moderate
Adiantum pedatum var. acleuticum Northern Maidenhair Fern Moderate
Asarum caudatum Western Wild Ginger Moderate
Athyrium felix-femina Lady Fern High-moderate
Blechnum spicant Deer Fern High-moderate
Cardamine occidentalis Big Western Bittercress Low
Carex amplifolia Bigleaf Sedge Moderate
Carex deweyana subsp. leptopoda Dewey sedge Low
Carex obnupta Slough sedge Moderate
Circaea alpina var. pacifica Alpine Nightshade Moderate
Cinna latifolia Drooping Woodreed Low
Claytonia (Montia) sibirica Siberian Spring Beauty Moderate
Dicentra formosa Pacific Bleeding Heart Moderate
Disporum hookeri Fairybells Moderate
Dryopteris expansa Spreading wood fern Low
Geum macrophyllum Largeleaf Avens High
Hydrophyllum tenuipes Pacific Waterleaf Moderate
Maianthemum dilatatum False Lily of the Valley Moderate
Mimulus guttatus Seep Monkeyflower Moderate
Lysichiton americanus Skunk Cabbage Moderate
Oenanthe sarmentosa Water Parsley Low-moderate
Petasites frigidus var. palmatus Arctic Sweet Clotsfoot Moderate
Polypodium glycyrrhiza Licorice fern Moderate
Polystichum minutum Sword Fern Moderate
Rorippa curvisiliqua Cruvepod Yellowcress Low
Stachys cooleyae Cooley’s Hedge Nettle Moderate
Tellima grandiflora Fringcup Moderate
Tiarella trifoliata Foamflower Moderate
Tolmiea menziesii Youth-On-Age Moderate
Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis var. lyalli American Stinging Nettle Low
Veratrum californicum California False Hellebore Low
Viola glabella Stream Violet Moderate
Viola sempervirens Evergreen violet Moderate
Woodwardia fimbriata Giant Chain Fern Low
The Flora of Seattle in 1850: Major Species and Landscapes Prior to Urban Development – Raymond J. Larson, 2005
Species Growing in Bogs and Bog-like Areas
Vegetation Type Scientific Name Common Name Abundance
Coniferous trees Thuja plicata Western Red Cedar Low
Tsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock Low-moderate
Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce Low
Pinus contorta Shore Pine Low
Pinus monticola Western White Pine Low
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Low
Broadleaf trees Alnus rubra Red Alder High
Alnus sinuata Sitka Alder Moderate
Betula pumila Bog Birch Moderate
Populus tremuloides Trembling Aspen Moderate
Evergreen shrubs Kalmia occidentalis Western Bog Laurel Moderate
Myrica gale Sweetgale Low
Rhododendron (Ledum) groenlandicum Trappers Tea High
Vaccinium oxycoccus Small Cranberry High
Deciduous shrubs Cornus stolonifera (or sericea)  var. occidentalis Western Dogwood High-moderate
Salix lucida subsp. lasiandra Pacific Willow High-moderate
Salix scouleriana Scouler Willow Moderate
Herbaceous Blechnum spicant Deer Fern Moderate
Caltha palustris Yellow Marsh Merigold Moderate
Drosera rotundifolia Round Leafed Sundew Moderate
Mimulus guttatus Seep Monkeyflower Low
Trientalis europea ssp.arctica Arctic Starflower Low
Potentilla palustris Marsh Cinquefoil Low
Sphagmun spp. Peat Moss Moderate
Spiraea douglasii Hardhack Spiraea Moderate-high
Stachys cooleyae Cooley’s Hedge Nettle Moderate
The Flora of Seattle in 1850: Major Species and Landscapes Prior to Urban Development – Raymond J. Larson, 2005
Species Growing within 100 Meters of Lake Margins
Vegetation Type Scientific Name Common Name Abundance
Coniferous trees Abies grandis Grand Fir Moderate
Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce Low
Pinus contorta Shore Pine Low
Pinus monticola Western White Pine Low
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Low-moderate
Taxus brevifolia Pacific Yew Moderate
Thuja plicata Western Red Cedar High
Tsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock Moderate
Broadleaf trees Acer circinatum Vine Maple Moderate
Acer glabrum var. douglasii Douglas Maple Low
Acer Macrophyllum Bigleaf Maple Moderate
Alnus rubra Red Alder Moderate
Arbutus menziesii Pacific Madrone Moderate
Cornus nuttallii Pacific Dogwood Low
Fraxinus oregana Oregon Ash High
Malus (Pyrus) fusca Oregon Crab Apple High
Populus trichocarpa subsp. balsamifera Black Cottonwood Moderate
Prunus emarginata Bitter Cherry Moderate
Quercus garryana Garry Oak Low
Rhamnus purshiana Cascara Moderate
Evergreen shrubs Gaultheria shallon Salal Low
Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape Moderate
Myrica gale Sweetgale Moderate
Deciduous shrubs Amelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry Moderate-low
Corylus cornuta var. californica California Hazelnut Moderate
Holodiscus discolor Oceanspray Low
Lonicera ciliosa Trumpet Honeysuckle Low
Lonicera humifusa Moderate-low
Lonicera involucrata Twinberry Moderate
Oemlaria cerasiformus Indian Plum Low
Philadelphus lewisii Wild Mock Orange Moderate
Physocarpus capitatus Pacific Nine Bark Moderate
Rosa gymnocarpa Baldhip Rose High-moderate
Rosa pisocarpa Cluster Rose Low
Ribes lacustre Black Gooseberry Low-moderate
Ribes sanguineum Red Flowering Current Moderate
Rubus parvifolium Thimbleberry Moderate-low
Rubus spectabilis Salmonberry Moderate
Rubus ursinus Trailing Blackberry Low
Salix lucida subsp. lasiandra Pacific Willow Moderate-high
Salix piperi Piper’s Willow Moderate
Salix scouleriana Scouler Willow High
Salix sitchensis Sitka Willow High
Sambucus racemosa Red Elderberry Low
Spiraea douglasii Hardhack Spiraea Low
Herbaceous Angelica genuflexa Kneeling Angelica Low
Aruncus dioicus Bride’s Feathers Moderate
Aster subspicatus Douglas Aster Low-moderate
Athyrium felix-femina Lady Fern Moderate
Blechnum spicant Deer Fern Low
Carex deweyana subsp. leptopoda Dewey sedge Moderate
Carex canescens Silvery Sedge Low
Carex obnupta Slough sedge Moderate
Erythronium oregonum White Fawn Lily Low
Fragaria chiloense Beach Strawberry Low
Fragaria virginiana var. platypetala Wild strawberry Low
Juncus articulatus Jointleaf Rush Low
Juncus effusus subsp. pacificus Pacific Rush Low-moderate
Luzula parviflora smallflowered woodrush Low-moderate
Maianthemum dilatatum False Lily of the Valley Moderate
Mimulus guttatus Seep Monkeyflower Moderate
Petasites frigidus var. palmatus Arctic Sweet Clotsfoot Low
Polypodium glycyrrhiza Licorice fern Low
Polystichum minutum Sword Fern Low
Pyrola asarifolia Liverleaf Wintergreen Moderate
Sagittaria latifolia Broadleaf Arrowhead Moderate
Smilacina (Maianthemum) stellatum Starry Solomon Seal Low
Solidago canadensis Canada Goldenrod Moderate
Stachys cooleyae Cooley’s Hedge Nettle Low-moderate
Typha latifolia Cattail High-moderate
Veratrum californicum var. caudatum California False Hellebore Low
Vicia americana American vetch Moderate
The Flora of Seattle in 1850: Major Species and Landscapes Prior to Urban Development – Raymond J. Larson, 2005
Riverine and Swamp Species (Along the Duwamish, swampy lake margins and in sloughs)
Vegetation Type Scientific Name Common Name Abundance
Coniferous trees Thuja plicata Western Red Cedar Moderate
Tsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock Low
Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce Low
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Low
Broadleaf trees Acer Macrophyllum Bigleaf Maple High
Alnus rubra Red Alder High
Acer circinatum Vine Maple High
Fraxinus oregana Oregon Ash High
Malus (Pyrus) fusca Oregon Crab Apple High
Populus tremuloides subsp. balsamifera Black Cottonwood High
Deciduous shrubs Oplopanax horridum Devil’s Club Moderate
Ribes divaricatum Spreading Gooseberry Moderate-high
Ribes lacustre Black Gooseberry Moderate-high
Rosa nutkana Nootka Rose Moderate-high
Rosa pisocarpa Cluster Rose Moderate-high
Rubus spectabilis Salmonberry Moderate-high
Rubus parvifolium Thimbleberry Low
Salix lucida subsp. lasiandra Pacific Willow Moderate-high
Salix piperi Piper’s Willow Moderate
Salix scouleriana Scouler Willow High
Salix sitchensis Sitka Willow High
Spiraea douglasii Hardhack Spiraea Moderate
Herbaceous Aster subspicatus Douglas Aster Low-moderate
Athyrium felix-femina Lady Fern Moderate
Blechnum spicant Deer Fern Low
Carex deweyana subsp. leptopoda Dewey sedge Moderate
Carex canescens Silvery Sedge Low
Carex lyngbyei Lyngbye’s Sedge Low (only in brackish areas)
Juncus balticus Baltic Rush Moderate
Mimulus guttatus Seep Monkeyflower Moderate
Petasites frigidus var. palmatus Arctic Sweet Clotsfoot Low
Lysichiton americanus Skunk Cabbage Moderate
Polypodium glycyrrhiza Licorice fern Moderate
Polystichum minutum Sword Fern Low
Scirpus acutus Headstem Bulrush Low
Scirpus maritimus Alkali Bulrush Low (only in salt marshes)
Stachys cooleyae Cooley’s Hedge Nettle Low-moderate
Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis var. lyalli American Stinging Nettle High-moderate
Vicia americana American vetch Moderate
The Flora of Seattle in 1850: Major Species and Landscapes Prior to Urban Development – Raymond J. Larson, 2005
Species Growing in Prairie-like and Drier Areas (including oak groves near Seward Park)
Vegetation Type Scientific Name Common Name Abundance
Coniferous trees Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Low
Broadleaf trees Quercus garryana Garry Oak Low
Evergreen shrubs Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Kinnikinnik Low
Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape Moderate
Deciduous shrubs Amelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry Low
Ceanothus velutinus Snowbrush Ceanothus Low
Rhus diversiloba Poison Oak Very Low
Symphoricarpos hesperius Trailing Snowberry Low
Symphoricarpos albus var. laevigatus Snowberry Low
Herbaceous Allium acuminatum Tapertip Onion Low
Anaphalis margaritacea Western Pearly Everlasting Moderate
Antennaria howellii Howell’s Pussytoes Low
Aquilegia formosa Western Columbine Low
Camassia leitchiana var. suksdorfii Camas Low
Brodiaea coronaria Harvest Brodiaea Low
Camassia quamash (var. azurea or maxima) Common Camas Low
Castelleja hispidia var. hispida Harsh Indian Paintbrush Low
Elymus glaucus Blue Wildrye Moderate
Epilobium angustifolium Fireweed Low
Festuca rubra var. littoralis Fescue Moderate
Fragaria viginiana var. platypetala Wild strawberry Low
Fritillaria affinis Chocolate Lily Low
Lupinus polycarpus Smallflower Lupine Moderate
Lupinus rivularis Riverbank Lupine Moderate
Solidago canadensis Canada Goldenrod Moderate
Zigadenus venerosus Death Camas Low
The Flora of Seattle in 1850: Major Species and Landscapes Prior to Urban Development – Raymond J. Larson, 2005
Species Growing Along or Near the Shores of Puget Sound (including Alki Point and like environments)
Vegetation Type Scientific Name Common Name Abundance
Coniferous trees Abies grandis Grand Fir Moderate
Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce Low-moderate
Pinus contorta Shore Pine Moderate-low
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir Moderate
Tsuga heterophylla Western Hemlock Low
Broadleaf trees Acer macrophyllum Bigleaf Maple Low-moderate
Alnus rubra Red Alder Low-moderate
Arbutus menziesii Pacific Madrone High
Prunus emarginata Bitter Cherry Moderate
Quercus garryana Garry Oak Low
Rhamnus purshiana Cascara Low
Evergreen shrubs Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Kinnikinnik Low-moderate
Gaultheria shallon Salal Moderate-low
Mahonia (Berberis) nervosa Dull Oregon Grape Low
Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape Low
Vaccinium ovatum Evergreen Huckleberrry Low-moderate
Deciduous shrubs Amelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry Moderate-low
Holodiscus discolor Oceanspray Moderate
Lonicera ciliosa Trumpet Honeysuckle Low
Lonicera humifusa Moderate
Oemlaria cerasiformus Indian Plum Low
Philadelphus lewisii Wild Mock Orange Moderate-low
Physocarpus capitatus Pacific Nine Bark Moderate
Potentilla pacifica (syn. P. anserina, P. ededii) Silverweed Cilquefoil Moderate
Rhus diversiloba Poison Oak Very Low
Ribes sanguineum Red Fowering Current Moderate
Rosa nutkana Nootka Rose Moderate-high
Rosa pisocarpa Cluster Rose Moderate-high
Rubus spectabilis Salmonberry Moderate-high
Rubus parvifolium Thimbleberry Moderate-low
Salix scouleriana Scouler Willow Moderate
Symphoricarpos albus var. laevigatus  Snowberry Moderate
Herbaceous Allium acuminatum Tapertip Onion Low
Arabis hirsuta var. eschsholtziana Hairy Rock Cress Low
Aruncus dioicus Bride’s Feathers Moderate
Camassia leitchiana var. suksdorfii Camas Low
Carex lyngbyei Lyngbye’s Sedge Low-moderate
Carex macrocephala Largehead Sedge Moderate
Castelleja hispidia var. hispida Harsh Indian Paintbrush Low
Castelleja levisecta Golden Indian Paintbrush Low
Disporum hookeri Fairybells Low
Distichus spicata Salt Grass Moderate-high
Eleochoris palustris Common Spikerush Low-moderate
Elymus mollis (syn. Leymus mollis) Dune Grass Moderate-high
Fragaria chiloense Beach Strawberry Low
Fragaria viginiana var. platypetala Wild Strawberry Low
Juncus balticus Baltic Rush Low-moderate
Lathyrus polyphyllus Leafy Pea Low
Lupinus polycarpus Smallflower Lupine Moderate
Lupinus rivularis Riverbank Lupine Moderate
Polypodium glycyrrhiza Licorice fern Low
Polystichum minutum Sword Fern Moderate
Sidalcea hendersonii Henderson’s Checkerbloom Low-moderate
Triglochin maritima Seaside Arrowgrass Low
Vicia americana American vetch Low-moderate
Zigadenus venerosus Death Camas Lowr

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